Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - History

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - History


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Mozart was a true prodigy, revealing his formidable musical gifts as a young child. Born in Salzburg, Mozart came from musical roots although his violinist-composer father did not nearly possess the skills of the son. What the father did know was how to market his children (Mozart's sister was a gifted pianist) and Mozart's childhood was spent performing before crowned heads-of-state and the public in Munich, Vienna, Frankfurt, Paris, London, and in the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Italy. By age 16, Mozart had written perhaps 25 symphonies and several quartets. He went on to write concertos, masses, compositions for flute, piano, violin, viola and clarinet. Mozart's operas -- The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Cosi fan tutte -- remain tremendously popular, as do all of his other works. He died young, in severely constrained financial straits, leaving behind creations enough to ensure his musical immortality.

ヴォルフガング・アマデウス・モーツァルト

父・レオポルトは息子が天才であることを見出し、幼少時から音楽教育を与えた。3歳のときからチェンバロを弾き始め、5歳のときに現存する最古の作品が作曲される (アンダンテ ハ長調 K.1a)。11歳ごろの作曲譜も発見された [3] 。父とともに音楽家としてザルツブルク大司教・ヒエロニュムス・コロレド伯の宮廷に仕える一方で、モーツァルト親子は何度もウィーン、パリ、ロンドン、およびイタリア各地に大旅行を行った。これは神童の演奏を披露したり、よりよい就職先を求めたりするためであったが、どこの宮廷でも就職活動に失敗する。1762年1月にミュンヘンへ、9月にウィーンへ旅行したのち、10月13日、シェーンブルン宮殿でマリア・テレジアの御前で演奏した際、宮殿の床で滑って転んでしまい、6歳のモーツァルトはそのとき手を取った7歳の皇女マリア・アントーニア(のちのマリー・アントワネット)に「大きくなったら僕のお嫁さんにしてあげる」と言ったという逸話がある。7歳のときフランクフルトで演奏した際に作家のゲーテがたまたまそれを聴き、そのレベルは絵画でのラファエロ、文学のシェイクスピアに並ぶと思ったとのちに回想している [4] 。

巡業と音楽教育 編集

1769年から1771年にかけて第1回目のイタリア旅行を行い、父とともにミラノ、ボローニャ、ローマを巡回する。システィーナ礼拝堂では、門外不出の秘曲とされていたグレゴリオ・アレグリ(Gregorio Allegri)の9声部の『ミゼレーレ』を聴き、暗譜で書き記したといわれる。ナポリでは数十日に及ぶ滞在を楽しみ、当時大変な話題の発掘されてからまもない古代ローマ遺跡ポンペイを訪れている [注釈 3] 。イタリア旅行は3度に及ぶが、中でも、ボローニャでは作曲者であり教師でもあったジョバンニ・バッティスタ・マルティーニ神父に、対位法やポリフォニーの技法を学んだ。教育の成果はすぐに現れなかったが、15年後の円熟期にモーツァルトは対位法を中心的な技法としていた [5] 。モーツァルトはほとんどの音楽教育を外国または旅行中に受けた。

マンハイム時代 編集

モーツァルトはマリアに未練を残しつつも、マンハイムの音楽家フリドリン・ウェーバーの娘、アロイジア・ヴェーバーに恋し、結婚の計画を立てるが [9] 、父・レオポルトは猛然と反対し、1778年2月にはパリ行きを命じる [注釈 4] 。3月から9月までのパリ滞在は悪夢であった [10] 。受け入れ先のシャボー公爵夫人からは冷遇され、また稼ぎもよくなかった [注釈 5] 。また自邸に招いて演奏させた人々は絶賛するが、報酬は出し惜しみした。交響曲第31番ニ長調(K297)「パリ」を作曲する。7月3日、同行した母がパリで死去した。

ウィーン時代 編集

晩年 編集

1791年 1月、最後のピアノ協奏曲となる第27番 K.595を作曲する。この曲を自ら初演した3月4日のコンサートが演奏家としてのモーツァルトの最後のステージとなった。7月には、第6子フランツ・クサーヴァー・モーツァルト(モーツァルト2世)が誕生する。9月、プラハで行われたレオポルト2世のボヘミア王戴冠式でオペラ 『皇帝ティートの慈悲』 K.621を初演。

妻子 編集

妻・コンスタンツェとの間に4男2女をもうけたが、そのうち成人したのは、カール・トーマスとフランツ・クサーヴァーだけで、残りの4人は乳幼児のうちに死亡している [注釈 7] 。フランツは職業音楽家となり、「モーツァルト2世」を名乗った [注釈 8] 。成人した2人の男子はどちらも子を残さなかったため、モーツァルトの子孫はいない。

年譜 編集

    (0歳) 1月27日、ザルツブルクに生まれる。 (5歳) 最初の作曲を行う(アンダンテ ハ長調 K.1a)。 (6歳) 10月マリア・テレジア御前演奏。 - 1766年 (7 - 10歳) パリ・ロンドン旅行。 - 1769年 (11 - 13歳) 第2回ウィーン旅行。オペラ『みてくれの馬鹿娘』K.51上演。 - 1771年 (13 - 15歳) 第1回イタリア旅行。 (14歳) 黄金拍車勲章授与。12月26日 オペラ『ポントの王ミトリダーテ』K.87初演。
  • 1771年 (15歳) 第2回イタリア旅行。セレナード『アルバのアスカニオ』K.111ミラノ上演。 - 1773年 (16 - 17歳) 第3回イタリア旅行。ミラノでオペラ『ルーチョ・シッラ』K.135上演。
  • 1773年 (17歳) 第3回ウィーン旅行。 - 1775年 (18 - 19歳) 第4回ウィーン旅行。オペラ『偽の女庭師』K.196上演。 (21歳) ザルツブルクでの職を辞しミュンヘン、マンハイムへ移る。 (22歳) パリへ移る。7月、同行した母はパリで死去する。 (23歳) ザルツブルクに帰郷。ザルツブルク宮廷にオルガニストとして復帰。 (24歳) オペラ『イドメネオ』K.366準備のためにミュンヘンに赴く。マリア・テレジア崩御。 (25歳) ザルツブルク大司教コロレドと衝突、解雇。ウィーン定住を決意。 (26歳)
    • 7月、オペラ『後宮からの誘拐』K.384をウィーンで初演。 、コンスタンツェ・ヴェーバーと結婚。
    • ザルツブルクに帰郷。大ミサ曲ハ短調 K.427を上演。
    • 6月、長男誕生するもザルツブルク旅行中に死亡。
    • 第2子カール・トーマス・モーツァルト誕生。 の慈善ロッジ(ウィーン)に入会(書類上では12月5日)。

    死因 編集

    症状としては全身の浮腫と高熱であったという。ウィーン市の公式記録では「急性粟粒疹熱」とされる。実際の死因は「リューマチ性炎症熱」であったと考えられている [注釈 9] 。リューマチには幼少期の度重なる旅行生活のなかで罹患したとされている [注釈 10] 。また、医者が死の直前に行った瀉血が症状を悪化させたとも言われる。

    葬儀と墓 編集

    葬儀の日取りは「12月6日説」と「12月7日説」の2つがある [注釈 12] 。遺体はウィーン郊外のサンクト・マルクス墓地の共同墓穴に埋葬された。誰も霊柩馬車に同行することを許されなかったため、実際に埋葬された位置は不明である [注釈 13] 。この簡素でそっけない埋葬は、晩年のモーツァルトが後援者たちから軽視されていたことの表れだと考えられる [13] 。

    • 5大オペラ:『後宮からの誘拐』『フィガロの結婚』『ドン・ジョヴァンニ』『コジ・ファン・トゥッテ(女はみなこうしたもの)』『魔笛』
    • 宗教音楽:大ミサ曲、レクイエム、『アヴェ・ヴェルム・コルプス』
    • 交響曲:第25番、第29番、第35番『ハフナー』、第36番『リンツ』、第38番『プラハ』、第39番、第40番、第41番『ジュピター』
    • セレナード:『アイネ・クライネ・ナハトムジーク』『セレナータ・ノットゥルナ』
    • ピアノ協奏曲:第20番、第21番、第22番、第23番、第24番、第26番、第27番
    • ヴァイオリン協奏曲:第3番、第5番『トルコ風』
    • 管楽器のための協奏曲:クラリネット協奏曲、フルート協奏曲第1番、フルートとハープのための協奏曲、オーボエ協奏曲、ホルン協奏曲
    • 弦楽四重奏曲:ハイドン・セット、プロシャ王セット
    • 弦楽五重奏曲:第3番、第4番
    • その他室内楽曲:クラリネット五重奏曲、オーボエ四重奏曲
    • ピアノソナタ:第11番『トルコ行進曲付き』
    • ピアノのための変奏曲: きらきら星変奏曲(フランスの歌曲『ああ、お母さん、あなたに申しましょう』による12の変奏曲)ハ長調 K.265

    モーツァルトの作品の多くは、生計を立てるために注文を受けて書かれたものである [注釈 17] 。モーツァルトの時代に限らず、何世紀もの間、芸術家は教皇や権力者などのパトロンに仕えることで生計を立てていた [15] 。18世紀になってからはパトロンから市場に移ることが徐々に可能になっていく。幼いころから各地を巡業した理由のひとつが就職活動であり、ベートーヴェンのようにフリーランスとして生きていくことは非常に困難な時代であった [注釈 18] 。したがって、モーツァルトの作品はその時代に要求された内容であり、たとえば長調の曲が多いのはそれだけ当時はその注文が多かったことの証でもある。実際、父の死後は依頼者のない作品が生まれている。これは、聴衆の嗜好に配慮せよとの父による規制がなくなったため、モーツァルト自身の目指す音楽に向かうことが可能になったからである。交響曲などがそれにあたる。

    名前 編集

    モーツァルトの洗礼名(ラテン語)は、ヨハンネス・クリュソストムス [注釈 20] ・ウォルフガングス・テオフィルス [注釈 21] ・モザルト( Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart )である。当時はイタリアの音楽家がもてはやされており、モーツァルトは「テオフィルス」よりもラテン語で意訳した「アマデウス( Amadeus )」を通称として使用していた。ただしモーツァルトは Amadeus ではなくイタリア語風のアマデーオ( Amadeo )をおもに使っていたともいわれ [17] 、ほかフランス語風のアマデ( Amadé )、ドイツ語風のゴットリープ( Gottlieb )も用いたことがある。


    Budding Young Composer

    In December 1769, Mozart, then age 13, and his father departed from Salzburg for Italy, leaving his mother and sister at home. It seems that by this time Nannerl’s professional music career was over. She was nearing marriageable age and according to the custom of the time, she was no longer permitted to show her artistic talent in public. The Italian outing was longer than the others (1769-1771) as Leopold wanted to display his son’s abilities as a performer and composer to as many new audiences as possible. While in Rome, Mozart heard Gregorio Allegri’s Miserere performed once in the Sistine Chapel. He wrote out the entire score from memory, returning only to correct a few minor errors. During this time Mozart also wrote a new opera, Mitridate, re di Ponto for the court of Milan. Other commissions followed and in subsequent trips to Italy, Mozart wrote two other operas, Ascanio in Alba (1771) and Lucio Silla (1772).

    Mozart and his father returned from their last stay in Italy in March 1773. His father’s benefactor, Archbishop von Schrattenbach had died and was succeeded by Hieronymus von Colleredo. Upon their return, the new archbishop appointed young Mozart as assistant concertmaster with a small salary. During this time, young Mozart had the opportunity to work in several different musical genres composing symphonies, string quartets, sonatas and serenades and a few operas. He developed a passion for violin concertos producing what came to be the only five he wrote. In 1776, he turned his efforts toward piano concertos, culminating in the Piano Concerto Number 9 in E flat major in early 1777. Mozart had just turned 21.

    Despite his success with the compositions, Mozart was growing discontent with his position as assistant concert master and the confining environment of Salzburg. He was ambitious and believed he could do more somewhere else. Archbishop von Colloredo was becoming impatient with the young genius’s complaining and immature attitude. In August 1777, Mozart set out on a trip to find more prosperous employment. The archbishop wouldn’t give Leopold permission to travel, so Anna Maria accompanied Wolfgang on his quest to the cities of Mannheim, Paris and Munich. There were several employment positions that initially proved promising, but all eventually fell through. He began to run out of funds and had to pawn several valuable personal items to pay traveling and living expenses. The lowest point of the trip was when his mother fell ill and died on July 3, 1778. After hearing the news of his wife’s death, Leopold negotiated a better post for his son as court organist in Salzburg and Wolfgang returned soon after.


    Mozart has silvery white hair with bangs that extend pass his lilac colored eyes. His skin tone is fair and he has a slender jawline. He also has a distinguishable beauty mark under his left eye.

    Part 1 [ edit | edit source ]

    "I was being polite." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    "No need to be rude." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    "I wanted to say hello." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Part 2 [ edit | edit source ]

    "(Can I trust him?)" (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Need 100+ Intimacy to continue.

    Name Beauty Image
    Mozart's Eyes 15

    Part 3 [ edit | edit source ]

    "Are you free?" (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Requires 3 "Key to His Heart" to unlock.

    Part 4 [ edit | edit source ]

    "Okay, Mozart." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Premium: Poet Shirt with Black Bow (300 Diamond)

    Normal: Iridescent Grey Blue Skirt (3000 Gold / 150 Diamond)

    Name Beauty Image
    Poet Shirt with Black Bow 60
    Iridescent Grey Blue Skirt 30

    Part 5 [ edit | edit source ]

    "Are you joking?" (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Letter: Another Warning

    Part 6 [ edit | edit source ]

    "It's beautiful." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Part 7 [ edit | edit source ]

    "It's the truth." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Need 2500+ Intimacy to continue.

    Prize: Gold Half Moon Earrings

    Name Beauty Image
    Gold Half Moon Earrings 30

    Part 8 [ edit | edit source ]

    "I'll treasure them." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Complete 2 endings to unlock, requires 3 "Key to His Heart" to unlock.

    Part 9 [ edit | edit source ]

    "Are you sick?" (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Part 10 [ edit | edit source ]

    "Are you sure?" (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Premium: Light Blonde Hair Pigtails (400 Diamond)

    Normal: Golden Brown Bob (4500 Gold / 200 Diamond)

    Name Beauty Image
    Light Blonde Hair Pigtails 80
    Golden Brown Bob 40

    Part 11 [ edit | edit source ]

    "What's wrong?" (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Part 12 [ edit | edit source ]

    "Have you met him?" (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Need 4000+ Intimacy to continue.

    Prize: Flower Bouquet Champagne Glass

    Name Beauty Image
    Flower Bouquet Champagne Glass 30

    Part 13 [ edit | edit source ]

    "I suppose I could." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Requires 3 "Key to His Heart" to unlock.

    Part 14 [ edit | edit source ]

    "No!" (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Part 15 [ edit | edit source ]

    "To be formal." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Premium: Pastel Sandals and Hand Mirror (500 Diamond)

    Normal: Black Loafers and Hand Mirror (6000 Gold / 250 Diamond)

    Name Beauty Image
    Pastel Sandals and Hand Mirror 100
    Black Loafers and Hand Mirror 50

    Part 16 [ edit | edit source ]

    "Don't you care?" (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Letter: Just to Let You Know

    Part 17 [ edit | edit source ]

    "Thanks." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Need 7500+ Intimacy to continue.

    Prize: Schelm, Mozart's Pet Owl

    Name Beauty Image
    Schelm, Mozart's Pet Owl 30

    Part 18 [ edit | edit source ]

    "So do I." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Drowning in a Sea of Sound

    Complete 2 endings to unlock, requires 3 "Key to His Heart" to unlock.

    Part 19 [ edit | edit source ]

    Nod. (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Premium: Faerie Flower Applique Dress (600 Diamond)

    Normal: Dark Flower Print Sundress (8500 Gold / 300 Diamond)

    Name Beauty Image
    Faerie Flower Applique Dress 120
    Dark Flower Print Sundress 60

    Part 20 [ edit | edit source ]

    "Tell me." (+ 4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Requires 3 "Key to His Heart" to unlock.

    Part 21 [ edit | edit source ]

    "I do." (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)

    Need 14000+ Intimacy to continue.

    Name Beauty Image
    Flower Chandelier 60

    Part 22 [ edit | edit source ]

    (I'll get him back.) (+4 Romantic Points, +4 Dramatic Points)


    Contents

    Family and early years Edit

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ("Wolfi" or Wolferl") was born in Salzburg, Austria, to Leopold and Anna Maria Mozart. Leopold was a violinist in the orchestra of the archbishop of Salzburg and the author of a best-selling introduction to playing the violin.

    Young Mozart showed evidence of great musical talent at a very early age. He was playing the harpsichord and the violin at the age of five, and writing little pieces of music.

    Mozart's sister Marianna ("Nannerl") was a talented youngster. The two children received their musical and academic education from their father. The family toured Europe for a few years, performing before royals and aristocrats.

    Mozart performed in Munich, Prague, Paris, The Hague and London. In London, he performed for King George III. He met the composer Johann Christian Bach, one of the sons of Johann Sebastian Bach. He sat on the knee of Johann Christian Bach (1735–1782) and improvised a fugue. And here, at the age of eight, he heard his first two symphonies performed.

    Eventually, the Mozarts made their way back to Salzburg. But in 1768, they were off again to Vienna, where the now twelve-year-old Wolfgang staged a production of his first opera, Bastien und Bastienne. And he was infected with smallpox at that time. He recovered but his face was pock-marked for life. He went to Italy where he heard music by many famous Italian composers, including Gregorio Allegri who had written a piece called Miserere. This piece had been written for the Pope for the choir of the Vatican to sing. No one was allowed to see the written music so that no other choir would be able to sing it. Mozart heard the piece once and then wrote it all down from memory. He met the Pope and was given a knighthood (Order of the Golden Spur).

    In 1777, he went on a journey with his mother. In Mannheim, he fell in love with Aloysia Weber. She was 16 years old and studying singing. Mozart wanted to take her to Italy to make her famous, but his father put a stop to these plans. By 1778, Mozart and his mother were in Paris. His mother died there.

    Mozart in Vienna Edit

    Mozart wrote some small operas when he was young, but his first really important opera was Idomeneo. It was first performed in Munich in 1780. The next year he went to Vienna. By this time he was working, like his father, for the Archbishop of Salzburg. When he went back to Salzburg he argued with the Archbishop who actually kicked him out. Mozart went off to Vienna where he would spend the rest of his life.

    In 1782 he married Constanze Weber, one of the three younger sisters of Aloysia (who by now was married to someone else). They were to have seven children, but five of them died in childhood. Mozart’s father did not approve of the marriage. Constanze was a loving wife, but, like Mozart, she was not good at looking after money, so they were often very poor.

    In that same year, 1782, Mozart wrote another very successful opera: Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("The Abduction from the Seraglio"). One famous story tells that, after the emperor had heard the opera, he told Mozart that there were “too many notes”. Mozart answered: “Just as many as are necessary, Your Majesty.”

    Mozart started a series of concerts in which he played his own piano concertos, conducting from the keyboard. He met the composer Joseph Haydn and the two men became great friends, often playing together in a string quartet. Haydn said to Leopold Mozart one day: "Before God and as an honest man I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name. He has taste, and what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition." Mozart was in the same Masonic Lodge as Haydn, and he dedicated some of his string quartets to him.

    The audiences in Vienna did not give Mozart much support after a few years, so he often went to Prague where the audiences loved him. His opera The Marriage of Figaro was very popular, and in 1787 he gave the first performance there of his opera Don Giovanni.

    Final illness and death Edit

    There are several stories about Mozart’s last illness and death, and it is not easy to be sure what happened. He was working on an opera The Magic Flute which is one of his best works and a very popular opera today. It is written in German, not Italian, like most of his other operas. In some ways it is like an English pantomime. At the same time that he was working on this he was asked by a stranger to compose a requiem. He was told to write this in secret. Then he was asked to write an Italian opera La Clemenza di Tito, which was performed in Prague during September 1791. At the end of September The Magic Flute was given its first performance. Mozart then worked very hard at the Requiem. He must have realized that he was already very ill, and that in a way the requiem (a mass for the dead) was for himself. He died in Vienna before he could finish it. Constanze asked another composer, a man called Franz Xaver Süssmayr, to finish the work. Mozart was buried in the St. Marx Cemetery.

    Mozart’s music Edit

    Mozart's music, like that of Haydn, is the very best of what is known as the Classical style. At the time he started to compose, the Baroque period was just coming to an end. Tastes were changing in music. Form, balance and elegance were thought of as more important than counterpoint. Mozart was the first great composer to write music for the piano, an instrument which had only just become popular. He wrote almost every kind of music: symphonies, operas, solo concertos, chamber music, especially string quartets and string quintets, and the piano sonata. He also wrote a lot of religious music, including masses, as well as popular music like dances, divertimenti and serenades.

    When Mozart was young a symphony was usually a short, simple piece for entertainment. Mozart made the symphony into a carefully worked-out piece lasting up to half an hour. His last three symphonies are especially fine masterpieces. His concertos, especially his piano concertos, are far more advanced than anything that had been written before. Although Mozart behaved in truly childish ways at times, he was good at understanding human character. This is clear in his operas, where he introduced many subtle effects to describe the characters in the story.

    Mozart's operas are among his greatest works. He understood people's characters very well and was able to write music which tells us everything about the personalities in the operas. The three operas in which he set words by Lorenzo Da Ponte: Don Giovanni, Le Nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro) and Cosi fan tutte each include some very clever ensembles in which several characters are singing at once, each one showing his or her view of the situation.

    As well as many great masterpieces, Mozart wrote many pieces in a more popular style, including some tunes that everybody knows today. His serenade Eine kleine Nachtmusik K525 is known everywhere, as is the Turkish Rondo from his Piano Sonata in A K331, the opening of the Symphony No. 40 in G minor K550, and the birdcatcher’s song from The Magic Flute K620.


    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (născut Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) s-a născut la 27 ianuarie 1756 la Salzburg, pe atunci capitala unui principat-arhiepiscopat (germ. Fürstbistum) ce făcea parte din Sfântul Imperiu Roman de Națiune Germană (după 1804 devenit Imperiul Austriac). Tatăl său, Leopold Mozart, a fost un talentat violonist în orchestra de la curtea principelui-arhiepiscop de Salzburg, apreciat și pentru aptitudinile sale pedagogice. În registrul de botez, Mozart a fost înregistrat cu numele: Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus. Mai târziu, în Italia, și-a luat numele de "Amadeus", traducerea latină a lui „Theophilus” („Iubitor de Dumnezeu”).

    Încă de mic copil, Mozart dă dovada geniului său muzical. La vârsta de 5 ani, înainte de a ști să scrie, compune câteva piese pentru pian, transcrise imediat de tatăl său. În ianuarie 1762, Leopold Mozart obține de la arhiepiscopul Sigismund von Schrattenbach un concediu de trei săptămâni, pentru „a arăta lumii acest miracol”. Turneul a durat în realitate 9 ani. Prima apariție are loc la München, unde Wolfgang cântă la clavecin în fața prințului elector de Bavaria, după care familia Mozart pleacă la Viena, tânărul Wolfgang concertând în fața familiei imperiale. Urmează un lung turneu european: Augsburg, Aachen, Bruxelles, Paris și Versailles. Rămâne un an la Londra, apoi se întoarce în Austria, trecând prin Franța, Elveția și Bavaria. Între decembrie 1769 și martie 1771 întreprinde un lung turneu în Italia: Verona, Milano, Florența, Roma și Napoli au fost principalele stațiuni de concerte. Peste tot, publicul era fascinat de talentul acestui copil precoce, între timp devenit adolescent.

    În serviciul curților princiare Modificare

    Familia Mozart revine la Salzburg la 15 decembrie 1771. Wolfgang împlinește 16 ani și pleacă pentru câteva luni la Bologna, unde studiază cu Giovanni Battista Martini (1706-1784), un renumit pedagog în arta compoziției. La întoarcere este angajat ca maestru de concert (Konzertmeister) de către noul arhiepiscop din Salzburg, Hieronymus von Colloredo, cu un salariu de 150 de guldeni pe an, ceea ce constituia o sumă apreciabilă. În această funcție rămâne timp de șase ani, deși relațiile cu noul arhiepiscop nu sunt din cele mai bune, acesta tratându-l ca angajat și interzicându-i să părăsească orașul Salzburg. Nemaiputând suporta aceste conveniențe sociale, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart și-a dat demisia în 1777 și a plecat, însoțit de mama sa, la München, unde a solicitat un angajament la curtea principelui elector Maximilian al III-lea. Acesta însă îl refuză. După o altă tentativă nereușită la Mannheim, se hotărăște să-și încerce soarta la Paris, unde - în timpul turneului din 1763 - avusese mult succes. Publicul parizian nu-și mai amintea însă de copilul minune de atunci și Mozart se lovește de multe greutăți. La toate acestea se adaugă moartea mamei, care îl însoțise peste tot. Starea lui morală se ameliorează cu greu, compozițiile sale încep să fie apreciate la curțile domnești. Lipsurile materiale îl constrâng totuși să părăsească Parisul și iată-l la 15 ianuarie 1779 din nou la Salzburg, unde rămâne doi ani. Între timp compune opera Idomeneo, cu care înregistrează un mare succes. Se decide totuși în 1781 să plece la Viena, capitala imperiului.

    Viena era în acea epocă capitala mondială a muzicii clasice. Mozart se simte în sfârșit independent și își creează un cerc de relații, conștient de faptul de a fi un virtuoz fără egal al pianului. Înregistrează primul mare succes cu opera Răpirea din serai, fiind felicitat de însuși împăratul Iosif al II-lea cu cuvintele: o muzică prea frumoasă pentru urechile noastre. Mozart dă numeroase concerte publice și private, executând din propriile compoziții, improvizează spontan pe teme date, aplauzele nu contenesc, publicul este în extaz. Redescoperă operele lui Bach și Händel, pe care le face cunoscute publicului vienez.

    La 4 august 1782 s-a căsătorit cu Constanze Weber. La 1785 a fost vizitat de tatăl său, Leopold, care - până atunci foarte reticent - constată cu satisfacție reușita fiului său. A fost încântat să audă din gura lui Joseph Haydn: "Fiul Dumneavoastră este cel mai mare compozitor pe care l-am cunoscut". La sfârșitul unui concert în Burgtheater, după interpretarea concertului nr. 20 pentru pian, împăratul Iosif al II-lea - prezent în sală - s-a ridicat în picioare agitându-și pălăria și strigând "Bravo Mozart!". În această perioadă Mozart compune într-un ritm neobișnuit, lucrează cu obstinație la cvartete dedicate lui Haydn și la opera Nunta lui Figaro, după o piesă a lui Pierre Beaumarchais, operă revoluționară, ca muzică și conținut istoric, reușind să depășească dificultățile din partea nobilimii.

    Ultimii ani Modificare

    În timp ce Mozart termină compoziția operei Don Giovanni, tatăl său se îmbolnăvește și moare la 28 mai 1787. Leopold a jucat un rol important în educația muzicală a fiului său, instruindu-l încă din copilărie și contribuind astfel la dezvoltarea geniului muzical al lui Mozart.

    Între 1784 și 1786, Mozart realizează în medie o compoziție la fiecare două săptămâni, cele mai multe adevărate capodopere. Premiera operei Don Giovanni are loc la Praga și este primită de public cu entuziasm. Urmează opera Così fan tutte, reprezentată cu mai puțin succes. Mozart pierde treptat din popularitate, între timp murise și protectorul său, împăratul Iosif al II-lea, cel care îl numise "compozitor al curții imperiale".

    În martie 1790 a susținut ultimul său concert public, interpretând concertul pentru pian KV 595. A compus de asemenea opera Flautul fermecat, cu care a obținut un mare succes. Începând din luna noiembrie 1791 sănătatea lui Mozart s-a degradat progresiv. Se pare că suferea de o febră reumatismală recurentă, cu insuficiență renală.

    Cauza decesului nu este clară. Diagnosticul medicului constatator a fost hitziges Frieselfieber („febră cu eczemă”). Alte cauze asupra cărora s-a speculat au fost febră reumatică, sifilis, trichineloză, Purpura Schönlein-Henoch („hiperemie generalizată”), congestie renală, insuficiență cardiacă și venisecție. Probabil cauza morții lui Mozart trebuie căutată într-o boală contractată în timpul copilăriei sale. Medicina modernă tinde spre o infecție cu streptococi, care nu a fost tratată în mod adecvat, și ca urmare s-a produs o insuficiență cardiacă și care a antrenat și afectarea altor organe.

    Speculațiile nu au lipsit, suspectându-se o otrăvire pusă la cale de rivalii lui, cum ar fi fost Antonio Salieri. Versiunea a devenit celebră și datorită filmului lui Milos Forman, Amadeus, care a câștigat nu mai puțin de 8 Premii Oscar. [6] La 4 decembrie starea lui se ameliorează trecător, mai lucrează la compoziția Requiemului, pe care însă nu va reuși să-l termine. Există mărturii că Requiemul a fost comandat compozitorului de o persoană necunoscută, care i-a venit în vizită fiind îmbrăcată în straie de culoare neagră. Persoana a fost mai târziu identificată. Acesta era un slujitor al unui conte vestit. Contele, pe numele Welsegg, avea intenția de a se interpreta Requiemul compus de Mozart cu ocazia încetării din viață a soției sale, reclamând creația drept o compoziție proprie. Despre această întâmplare Mozart nu a mai aflat. El era convins că muzica și-o scrie pentru propria sa moarte. În ziua de 5 decembrie 1791, viața scurtă a lui Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart se stinge pentru totdeauna. Avea numai 35 de ani. După un scurt serviciu divin la Catedrala Sfântul Ștefan din Viena (Stefansdom), trupul neînsuflețit al lui Mozart este dus fără un cortegiu de însoțitori (cu toate că a avut parte de un succes imens în timpul vieții, din cauza vremii nefavorabile, foarte puține persoane ce l-au cunoscut pe Mozart au însoțit cortegiul), la cimitirul Sankt Marx. Mottoul lui a fost: " Mă simt cuprins de muzică. Muzica este în mine".

    În scurta sa viață, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart a compus un număr enorm de opere muzicale, cele mai multe neegalate în frumusețe sau profunzime. În 1862 Ludwig von Köchel a clasificat și catalogat compozițiile lui Mozart, fiind numerotate cu mențiunea KV (Köchel-Verzeichnis = catalogul Köchel). Ultima sa creație, Recviemul în re minor, are numărul 626.

    Mozart a fost autorul a 41 de simfonii, printre care sunt de menționat Simfonia nr. 35 Haffner, nr. 36 Linz, nr. 40 și nr. 41 Jupiter.

    A compus 27 concerte pentru pian și orchestră, 7 concerte pentru vioară și orchestră, concerte pentru clarinet, pentru harpă și flaut, pentru corn și orchestră, 2 simfonii concertante, divertismente, serenade.

    În domeniul muzicii de cameră sunt de menționat cele 6 cvartete pentru coarde dedicate lui Haydn, sonate pentru pian, sonate pentru vioară și pian, triouri pentru vioară, violoncel și pian, cvartete pentru instrumente de suflat, sextetul O glumă muzicală etc.

    Pasionat de operă, a compus 17 opere, dintre care cele mai cunoscute, jucate și astăzi pe scenele tuturor teatrelor de operă din lume, sunt: Răpirea din Serai, Nunta lui Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan tutte, Flautul fermecat.

    A mai compus 19 mise, cantate, motete pentru soprană și orchestră, oratoriul "Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots" și, în fine, Recviemul în re minor.

    Există 25 imagini autentice cu W.A.Mozart [7] și 17 false [8] .

    Cel mai cunoscut portret autentic al lui Mozart a fost creat de pictorița austriacă Barbara Krafft (1764-1825) în anul 1819, la 28 de ani după decesul compozitorului. A luat ca model chipul lui Mozart pictat de austriacul Johann Nepomuk della Croce (1736-1819) în anul 1781 (Mozart avea atunci 25 ani), într-o scenă familială, in care mai apare Leopold Mozart (tatăl lui Amadeus, la 62 de ani), mama Anna Maria (deja decedată, prezentă într-un tablou pe un perete) și sora Maria Anna („Nannerl”, la 30 de ani).


    In Paris and Vienna

    Paris was a vastly larger theater for Mozart's talents. His father urged him to go there, for ȯrom Paris the fame of a man of great talent echoes through the whole world," he wrote his son. But after nine difficult months in Paris, from March 1778 to January 1779, Mozart returned once more to Salzburg, having been unable to secure a foothold and depressed by the entire experience, which had included the death of his mother in the midst of his stay in Paris. Unable to get hired for an opera, he wrote music to order in Paris, again mainly for wind instruments: the Sinfonia Concertante for four solo wind instruments and orchestra, the Concerto for flute and harp, other chamber music, and the ballet music Les Petits riens. In addition, he began giving lessons to make money.

    Mozart's years in Vienna, from age twenty-five to his death at thirty-five, cover one of the greatest developments in a short span in the history of music. In these ten years Mozart's music grew rapidly beyond the realm of many of his contemporaries it exhibited both ideas and methods of elaboration that few could follow, and to many the late Mozart seemed a difficult composer.

    The major instrumental works of this period bring together all the fields of Mozart's earlier activity and some new ones: six symphonies, including the famous last three: no. 39 in E-flat Major, no. 40 in G Minor, and no. 41 in C Major (the Jupiter 𠅊 title unknown to Mozart). He finished these three works within six weeks during the summer of 1788, a remarkable feat even for him.

    In the field of the string quartet Mozart produced two important groups of works that completely overshadowed any he had written before 1780: in 1785 he published the six Quartets (K. 387, 421, 428, 458, 464, and 465) and in 1786 added the single Hoffmeister Quartet (K. 499). In 1789 he wrote the last three Quartets (K. 575, 589, and 590), dedicated to King Frederick William (1688�) of Prussia, a noted cellist.


    Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus

    Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus [baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus] (b Salzburg, 1756 d Vienna, 1791). Austrian composer, keyboard-player, violinist, violist, and conductor. Son of Leopold Mozart, Vice-Kapellmeister to Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, Mozart showed exceptional musical precocity, playing the klavier at 3 and composing at 5. His elder sister Maria Anna (1751�) was also a brilliant kbd. player and in 1762 Leopold decided to present his children's talents at various European courts. They first visited Munich and Vienna in 1762. Wolfgang was now able to play the vn. without having had formal teaching. In 1763 a longer journey began, from Munich, Augsburg, Frankfurt, and other cities to Cologne, Brussels, and Paris. They spent a fortnight at Louis XV's court at Versailles. In Apr. 1764 they arrived in London and were received by George III. While in London, Wolfgang studied with Abel, comp. with J. C. Bach, and singing with the castrato Manzuoli. He wrote his first 3 syms. in London. After visits to Holland and Switzerland, the Mozart family returned to Salzburg in Nov. 1766. Further visits to Vienna were made in 1767 and 1768 and Mozart comp. 2 operas, La finta semplice and Bastien und Bastienne . In Dec. 1769, Leopold took Mozart to It. where the boy's genius was everywhere acclaimed. He was taught by Martini and met Nardini, Jommelli, and Burney. In Rome he heard Allegri's Miserere and wrote it out from memory. His opera Mitridate , Rè di Ponto was successfully prod. in Milan in Dec. 1770. Two further visits to It. speedily followed, but the new prince-archbishop of Salzburg was less well-disposed towards the Mozarts and in 1777 Mozart left on a tour with his mother, Leopold not being well enough to go. They visited Munich, Augsburg, Mannheim (where he heard the famous orch.) and arrived in Paris in 1778. Mozart's mother died there in July of that year. No longer a Wunderkind , Mozart had less appeal for the Parisians, who were engrossed in the Gluck-Piccinni controversy. Unable to obtain a court post, Mozart returned to Salzburg where he spent the next 2 years as court and cath. org. amid growing hostility to the archbishop. In 1780 the Elector of Bavaria commissioned an opera from Mozart ( Idomeneo ), prod. in Munich, Jan. 1781. On Mozart's return to Salzburg he had a final confrontation with the archbishop and resigned. He went to Vienna, where he married Constanze Weber in Aug. 1782, a few days after the first perf. of his opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail . The last 9 years of his life were a juxtaposition of financial troubles with an astonishing outpouring of masterpieces in almost every genre. In 1785 he frequently played the va. in str. qts. with Dittersdorf and Haydn. To the latter, who regarded Mozart as the greatest composer he knew, Mozart dedicated 6 str. qts. in the autumn of 1785, when he also began work on Le nozze di Figaro . He frequently appeared as soloist in his own kbd. concs. Although Figaro was rapturously received in Vienna in 1786, it was taken off after 9 perfs., but was the rage of Prague when prod. there in 1787. During his visit to the Bohemian capital, Mozart's Sym. in D (K504, No.38) received its f.p., thereafter being known as the ‘Prague Sym’. He was subsequently commissioned to write an opera for Prague for the following autumn. The result was Don Giovanni , written in a few months while the 2 str. quintets in C major and G minor and Eine kleine Nachtmusik were also composed. In the same year Leopold Mozart died at Salzburg. The new opera was a success in Prague, but initially failed in Vienna, where it was prod. with some extra numbers in May 1788. A month later Mozart began to compose the first of his 3 last syms., completing them between 26 June and 10 Aug. In 1789, under severe financial pressure, he played a conc. in Dresden on the way to Berlin. He visited Leipzig, playing Bach's org. at St Thomas's. In Berlin King Friedrich Wilhelm II, a cellist, commissioned 6 str. qts. of which only 3 were written. In the autumn Emperor Joseph II of Austria commissioned a new comic opera, Così fan tutte , which was prod. early in 1790. Joseph died shortly afterwards, but Mozart's hope of being appointed by Leopold II Kapellmeister in place of Salieri was not fulfilled. In 1791 he was approached by the actor-manager Schikaneder with a view to composing a fairy-tale opera on a lib. concocted by Schikaneder. Die Zauberflöte was almost completed by July, the month in which Mozart received a commission to compose a Requiem for an anonymous patron (Count F. von Walsegg who wished to pass it off as his own). Mozart deferred work on it to compose an adaptation of Metastasio's La clemenza di Tito for Leopold II's coronation as King of Bohemia in Prague in Sept. This prod. was supervised by Mozart, who returned to Vienna, wrote the cl. conc., cond. the f.p. of Die Zauberflöte , and then resumed work on the Requiem . But his health, which had been deteriorating for some time, now became critical and he died on 5 Dec., leaving the Requiem to be completed by his pupil Süssmayr. He was buried in accordance with the Emperor Joseph II's regulations, with others who had died at the same time, and the location of his grave remains unknown. The circumstances of Mozart's death have given rise to many sensational theories, none proved, and there is much medical speculation on the cause of death.

    The extent and range of Mozart's genius are so vast and so bewildering that any concise summing-up of his achievement must risk being trite. He took the mus. small-change of his day, learned from childhood in the courts of Europe, and transformed it into a mint of gold. His sense of form and symmetry seems to have been innate and was allied to an infallible craftsmanship which was partly learnt and partly instinctive. In his operas he not only displayed hitherto unequalled dramatic feeling, but widened the boundaries of the singer's art through contact with some of the greatest vv. of his day and, with his amazing insight into human nature, at once perceptive and detached, he created characters on the stage who may be claimed in their context as the equal of Shakespeare's. His music was supranational, combining It., Fr., Austrian, and Ger. elements. Not by revolutionary deliberation but by the natural superiority of the mus. he wrote, he changed the course of the sym., the pf. conc., the str. qt., the sonata, and much more besides. Perhaps the only element missing from his mus. is the worship of Nature which Beethoven and later 19th-cent. composers were to supply. There are brilliance and gaiety on the surface of Mozart's mus., but underneath a dark vein of melancholy which gives his works ( Così fan tutte in particular) an ambivalence which is continually fascinating and provocative. ‘Mozart is music’, a critic said, and most composers since 1791 have agreed. A selective list of prin. works follows. Some of the dates, which are Kཬhel's, are conjectural:OPERAS: Apollo et Hyacinthus , intermezzo (K38, 1767) Bastien und Bastienne (K50, 1768) La finta semplice (K51, 1769) Mitridate, Rè di Ponto (K87, 1770) Ascanio in Alba (K111, 1771) Il sogno di Scipione (K126, 1771) Lucio Silla (K135, 1772) La finta giardiniera (K196, 1774) Il Rè Pastore (K208, 1775) Zaide (K344, 1779�) Thamos, König in Ägypten (K345, 1773, rev. 1776 and 1779�, incid. music) Idomeneo, Rè di Creta (K366, 1780𠄱) Die Entführung aus dem Serail (K384, 1781𠄲) L'Oca del Cairo (K422, 1783) Lo sposo deluso (K430, 1783) Der Schauspieldirektor (The Impresario) (K486, 1785𠄶) Le nozze di Figaro (K492, 1785𠄶) Don Giovanni (K527, 1787) Così fan tutte (K588, 1789) Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute) (K620, 1790𠄱) La clemenza di Tito (K621, 1791).BALLET MUSIC: Les Petits Riens (K Anh. 10, 1778) for Idomeneo (K367, 1780).SYMPHONIES (numbered according to Breitkopf and Härtel edn.): No.1 in E♭ (K16, 1764) No.4 in D (K19, 1764) No.5 in B♭ (K22, 1765) No.6 in F (K43, 1767) No.7 in D (K45, 1768) No.8 in D (K48, 1768) No.9 in C (K73, 1771) No.10 in G (K74, 1770) No.11 in D (K84, 1770) No.12 in G (K110, 1771) No.13 in F (K112, 1771) No.14 in A (K114, 1771) No.15 in G (K 124, 1772) No.16 in C (K128, 1772) No.17 in G (K129, 1772) No.18 in F (K130, 1772) No.19 in E♭ (K132, 1772) No.20 in D (K133, 1772) No.21 in A (K134, 1772) No.22 in C (K162, 1773) No.23 in D (K181, 1773) No.24 in B♭ (K182, 1773) No.25 in G minor (K183, 1773) No.26 in E♭, ov. for Thamos (K184, 1773) No.27 in G (K199, 1773) No.28 in C (K200, 1773) No.29 in A (K201, 1774) No.30 in D (K202, 1774) No.31 in D (Paris, K297, 1778) No.32 in G, probably ov. to Zaide (K318, 1779) No.33 in B♭ (K319, 1779) No.34 in C (K338, 1780) No.35 in D ( Haffner , K385, 1782) No.36 in C ( Linz , K425, 1783) No.37 in G (only introduction, rest by M. Haydn) (K444, 1783) No.38 in D ( Prague , K504, 1786) No.39 in E♭ (K543, 1788) No.40 in G minor (K550, 1788) No.41 in C ( Jupiter , K551, 1788) also various others, some only fragmentary, and some probably of doubtful authenticity.MISC. ORCH.: Cassations : B♭ (K99, 1769) Kontretänze (Country Dances): B♭ (K123, 1770), Set of 6 (K462, 1784), Das Donnerwetter (K534, 1788), La Bataille (K535, 1788), Set of 2 (K565, 1788), Der Sieg vom Helden Koburg (K587, 1789), Set of 2 (K603, 1791), E♭ (K607, 1791), Set of 5 (K609, 1791), G major (K610, 1791) German Dances : Set of 6 (K509, 1787), Set of 6 (K536, 1788), Set of 6 (K567, 1788), Set of 6 (K571, 1789), Set of 12 (K586, 1789), Set of 6 (K600, 1791), Set of 4 (K602, 1791), Set of 3 (K605, 1791), C major (K611, 1791) Divertimenti : No.1 in E♭ (K113, 1771), No.2 in D (K131, 1772), D (K136, 1772), B♭ (K137, 1772), F (K138, 1772), No.3 in E♭ (K166, 1773), No.4 in B♭ (K186, 1773), No.5 in C (K187, ?1773), No.6 in C (K188, 1776), No.7 in D (K205, 1773), No.8 in F (K213, 1775), E♭ (K226, 1775), B♭ (K227, 1775), No.9 in B♭ (K240, 1776), No.10 in F (K247, 1776), No.11 in D (K251, 1776), No.12 in E♭ (K252, 1776), No.13 in F (K253, 1776), No.14 in B♭ (K270, 1777), No.15 in B♭ (K287, 1777), F (K288, 1777), No.16 in E♭ (K289, 1777), No.17 in D (K334), 1779) Serenades : G (K63, 1769), No.1 in D (K100, 1769), No.2 in F ( Kontretanz ) (K101, ?1776), No.3 in D (K195, 1773), No.4 in D (K203, 1774), No.5 in D (K204, 1775), Serenata notturna , No.6 in D for 2 orch. (K239, 1776), No.7 in D ( Haffner , K250, 1776), No.8 in D ( Notturno for 4 orch., K286, 1776𠄷), No.9 in D ( Posthorn , K320, 1779), No.10 in B♭ for 13 wind instr. (K361, 1784), No.11 in E♭ for wind (K375, 1781), No.12 in C minor for wind (K388, 1782), No.13 in G for str., Eine kleine Nachtmusik (K525, 1787) Maurerische Trauermusik (Masonic Funeral Music) (K477, 1785) Ein musikalischer Spass (A musical joke) (K522, 1787) Sinfonia Concertante in E♭ for ob., cl., bn., hn. (K297b, 1778, considered doubtful attribution by some scholars) also Marches, Minuets, Gavottes.CONCERTOS: PIANO: No.1 in F (arr. of sonata-movts. by Raupach and Honauer, K37, 1767), No.2 in B♭ (arr. of sonata-movts. by Raupach and Schobert, K39, 1767), No.3 in D (arr. of sonata-movts. by Honauer, Eckart, and ?C. P. E. Bach, K40, 1767), No.4 in G (arr. of sonata-movts. by Honauer and Raupach, K41, 1767), No.5 in D (K175, 1773), No.6 in B♭ (K238, 1776), No.7 in F (K242, 1776), No.8 in C (K246, 1776), No.9 in E♭ (K271, 1777), No.10 in E♭ (K365, ?1779), No.11 in F (K413, 1782𠄳), No.12 in A (K414, 1782), No.13 in C (K415, 1782𠄳), No.14 in E♭ (K449, 1784), No.15 in B♭ (K450, 1784), No.16 in D (K451, 1784), No.17 in G (K453, 1784), No.18 in B♭ (K456, 1784), No.19 in F (K459, 1784), No.20 in D minor (K466, 1785), No.21 in C (K467, 1785), No.22 in E♭ (K482, 1785), No.23 in A (K488, 1784𠄶), No.24 in C minor (K491, 1786), No.25 in C (K503, 1786), No.26 in D, Coronation (K537, 1787𠄸), No.27 in B♭ (K595, 1788�) 2 PIANOS : E♭ (K365, 1779) 3 PIANOS : F major (K242, 1776) Concert Rondo in D (K382, 1782), in A (K386, 1782).VIOLIN: No.1 in B♭ (K207, 1773), No.2 in D (K211, 1775), No.3 in G (K216, 1775), No.4 in D (K218, 1775), No.5 in A (K219, 1775, with alternative Adagio in E, K261, 1776), Rondo in C (K373, 1781) 2 VIOLINS : Concertone in C (K190, 1773) VIOLIN & VIOLA: Sinfonia Concertante in E♭ (K364, 1779) BASSOON : B♭ (K191, 1774) CLARINET : A major (K622, 1791) FLUTE : No.1 in G (K313, 1778), No.2 in D transcr. from ob. conc. in C (K314, 1778) Andante in C (K315, 1778) FLUTE & HARP : C major (K299, 1778) HORN & STRINGS : No.1 in D (K412, 1791), No.2 in E♭ (K417, 1783), No.3 in E♭ (K447, 1787), No.4 in E♭ (K495, 1786), No.5 in E♭, fragment (K494a, 1786) Concert Rondo for hn. and orch. in E♭ (K371, 1791) OBOE : C major (K271k, 1777, transcr. for fl. as conc. No.2 in D).CHURCH MUSIC: Kyrie in F (K33, 1766), Missa brevis in G (K49, 1768), in D minor (K65, 1769), in C (K115, 1773), in F (K116, 1771), in F (Mass No.6) (K192, 1774), in D (K194, 1774), in C (Mass No.10) (K220, 1775), in C (K258, 1776), in C (Mass No.13) (K259, 1775 or 1776), in B♭ (K275, 1777) Mass in C, Dominicus (K66, 1769), No.4 in C minor, Waisenhausmesse (K139, 1768), No.7 in C, Missa in honorem Sanctissimae Trinitatis (K167, 1773), in C (K257, 1776), in C, Missa longa (K262, 1775), No.16 in C, Coronation (K317, 1779), in C major, Missa solemnis (K337, 1780), No.18 in C minor, unfinished (K427, 1782𠄳) Regina Coeli (K127, 1772) Motet, Exsultate, jubilate for sop., orch., and organ (K165, 1773) Dixit Dominus (K193, 1774) Litaniae Lauretanae (K195, 1774) Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento (K243, 1776) Vesperae de Dominica (K321, 1779) Kyrie in D minor (K341, 1780𠄱) Vesperae Solennes de Confessore (K339, 1780) Motet, Ave verum corpus (K618, 1791) Requiem Mass in D minor (unfinished) (K626, 1791).CHORUS & ORCH.: Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebotes , pt. I of sacred drama (K35, 1767) Grabmusik , Passion cantata (K42, 1767) La Betulia liberata , oratorio (K118, 1771) Davidde Penitente , oratorio, mainly based on Mass in C minor, K427 (K469, 1785) Die Maurerfreude , cantata (K471, 1785) Eine kleine Freimaurer-Kantate (K623, 1791).UNACC. VOICES: God is our Refuge , sacred madrigal (K20, 1765) 5 Riddle Canons (K89a, 1770) numerous Canons comp. between 1782 and 1788, also various secular trios, qts., and chs.SOLO VOICE & ORCH. (mainly concert arias): Per pietà, bell' idol mio , sop. (K78, c.1766) Scena and aria, Misera, dove son? Ah, non son'io che parlo , sop. (K369, 1781) Scena and rondo (extra number for Idomeneo ) Non più, tutto ascoltai . Non temer, amato bene , sop. (K490, 1786) Scena and rondo, Ch'io mi scordi di te. Non temer amato bene , sop. with pf. obbl. (K505, 1786) Scena and aria, Bella mia fiamma . Resta, oh caro , sop. (K528, 1787) aria, Un bacio di mano , for Anfossi's Le gelosie fortunate , for bass (K541, 1788) rondo, extra aria for Susanna in Figaro , Al desio di chi t'adora , sop. (K577, 1789) Un moto di gioia , sop., extra number for Susanna in Figaro (K579, 1789) Schon lacht der holde Frühling , sop. for Paisiello's Il Barbiere di Siviglia (K580, 1789) Vado, ma dove? , sop., for Martin's Il burbero di buon core (K583, 1789) Rivolgete a lui lo sguardo , bass, orig. for Così fan tutte (K584, 1789) Per questa bella mano , bass (K612, 1791).STRING QUARTETS: No.1 in G (K80, 1773𠄵), No.2 in D (K155, 1772), No.3 in G (K156, 1772), No.4 in C (K157, 1772𠄳), No.5 in F (K158, 1772𠄳), No.6 in B♭ (K159, 1773), No.7 in E♭ (K160, 1773), No.8 in F (K168, 1773), No.9 in A (K169, 1773), No.10 in C (K170, 1773), No.11 in E♭ (K171, 1773), No.12 in B♭ (K172, 1773), No.13 in D minor (K173, 1773), Nos. 14� ‘Haydn Quartets’: No.14 in G (K387, 1782), No.15 in D minor (K421, 1783), No.16 in E♭ (K428, 1783), No.17 in B♭ ( Hunt , K458, 1784), No.18 in A (K464, 1785), No.19 in C ( Dissonanzen , K465, 1785), No.20 in D ( Hoffmeister , K499, 1786), Nos. 21� ( ‘King of Prussia Quartets ’): No.21 in D (K575, 1789), No.22 in B♭ (K589, 1790), No.23 in F (K590, 1790) Adagio and Fugue in C minor, fugue identical with K426 for 2 pf. of 1783 (K546, 1788).STRING QUINTETS: No.1 in B♭ (K174, 1773), No.2 in C minor, arr. of Serenade No.12 for wind, K388 (K406, 1786), No.3 in C (K515, 1787), No.4 in G minor (K516, 1787), No.5 in D (K593, 1790), No.6 in E♭ (K614, 1791).CLARINET QUINTET: A major (K581, 1789) CLARINET TRIO , E♭ for cl., va., pf. (K498, 1786).FLUTE QUARTETS: No.1 in D (K285, 1777), No.2 in G (K285a, 1777), No.3 in C (K285b, 1777), No.4 in A (K298, 1778) FLUTE (or vn.) SONATAS , with hpd.: No.1 in B♭ (K10, 1764), No.2 in G (K11, 1764), No.3 in A (K12, 1764), No.4 in F (K13, 1764), No.5 in C (K14, 1764), No.6 in B♭ (K15, 1764).HORN QUINTET: E♭ (K407, 1782).OBOE QUARTET: F major (K370, 1781).PIANO QUARTETS: No.1 in G minor (K478, 1785), No.2 in E♭ (K493, 1786).PIANO & WIND QUINTET (pf., ob., cl., hn., bn.): E♭ (K452, 1784).PIANO TRIOS: No.1 in B♭ (K254, 1776), No.2 in G (K496, 1786), No.3 in B♭ (K502, 1786), No.4 in E (K542, 1788), No.5 in C (K548, 1788), No.6 in G (K564, 1788) in D minor/major, completed by Stadler (K442, 1783).MISC. CHAMBER WORKS: Adagio and Rondo in C minor for glass armonica, fl., ob., va., vc. (K617, 1791) Adagio for cor anglais and str. (K580a, 1789) Adagio in Canon in F for 2 basset hn. and bn. (K410, 1783) Adagio in F for 2 cl. and 3 basset hns. (K411, 1783) 12 Duets for 2 basset hns. (K487, 1786) Duo for vn. and va., No.1 in G (K423, 1783), No.2 in B♭ (K424, 1783) 5 Divertimenti for 2 cl. and bn. (K229, 1783) Minuet in D, 2 vn., 2 hn., bass (K64, 1769) 7 Minuets with Trio , 2 vn. and bass (K65a, 1769) Adagio in C for glass armonica (K356, 1791).SONATAS: BASSOON & CELLO: B♭ (K292, 1775) PIANO : No.1 in C, No.2 in F, No.3 in B♭, No.4 in E♭, No.5 in G, No.6 in D (K279�, 1774, No.6, 1775), No.7 in C (K309, 1777), No.8 in A minor (K310, 1778), No.9 in D (K311, 1778), No.10 in C, No.11 in A, No.12 in F, No.13 in B♭ (K330�, 1778), No.14 in C minor (K457, 1784), No.15 in C (K545, 1788), No.16 in B♭ (K570, 1789), No.17 in D (K576, 1789) VIOLIN & PIANOFORTE : No.1 in C (K6, 1762𠄴), No.2 in D (K7, 1763𠄴), No.3 in B♭ (K8, 1763𠄴), No.4 in G (K9, 1764), Nos. 5�, K10� (see under flute), No.11 in E♭, No.12 in G, No.13 in C, No.14 in D, No.15 in F, No.16 in B♭ (K26�, 1766), No.17 in C (K296, 1778), No.18 in G, No.19 in E♭, No.20 in C, No.21 in E minor, No.22 in A, No.23 in D (K301�, 1778), No.24 in F (K376, 1781), No.25 in F (K377, 1781), No.26 in B♭ (K378, 1779), No.27 in G major/minor (K379, 1781), No.28 in E♭ (K380, 1781), No.29 in A (K402, 1782, completed by Stadler), No.30 in C (K403, 1782, unfinished), No.31 in C (K404, 1782, unfinished), No.32 in B♭ (K454, 1784), No.33 in E♭ (K481, 1785), No.34 in A (K526, 1787), No.35 in F (K547, 1788). Also sonata movt. in C minor (K396, 1782, completed by Stadler).STRING TRIOS: B♭, 2 vn. and bass, (K266, 1777), Divertimento in E♭, vn., va., vc. (K563, 1788). Also 6 Fugue arrs. from J. S. and W. F. Bach, with orig. introductions (K404A, 1782).PIANO (4 HANDS): Sonatas: in B♭ (K358, 1774), D (K381, 1772), F (K497, 1786), C (K521, 1787) Fugue in G minor (K401, 1782) Andante and Variations (K501, 1786).2 PIANOS: Fugue in C minor (K426, 1783, arr. for str., with short Adagio as preface, 1788), Sonata in D (K448, 1781).SOLO PIANO (except Sonatas): Minuet and Trio in G, Minuet in F, Allegro in B♭, Minuet in F, Minuet in F (K1𠄵, 1761𠄲), 8 Variations on ‘Laat ons juichen ’ (air by C. E. Graaff) in G (K24, 1766), 7 Variations on ‘Wilhelmus van Nassouwe ’ (K25, 1766), 12 Variations on a Minuet by Fischer (K179, 1774), Andantino in E♭ (K236, 1790), 9 Variations on ‘Lison dormait ’ from Dez's Julie (K264, 1778), 12 Variations on 𠆊h, vous dirai-je, maman ’ (K265, 1778), 8 Variations on a March in Grétry's ‘Mariages Samnites ’ (K352, 1781), 12 Variations on ‘La Belle Françoise ’ (K353, 1778), 12 Variations on ‘Je suis Lindor’ in Beaumarchais's ‘Le Barbier de Séville’ (K354, 1778), Minuet in D (K355, c.1786), Fantasia and Fugue in C (K394, 1782), Capriccio in C (K395, 1778), Fantasia in D minor (K397, 1782), 6 Variations on Paisiello's ‘Salve tu , Domine ’ (K398, 1783), Suite in C (K399, 1782), 1st movt. of Sonata in B♭ (K400, 1782), Kleiner Trauermarsch in C minor (K453a, 1784), 10 Variations on Unser dummer Pl meint from Gluck's La rencontre imprévue (K455, 1784), Fantasia in C minor (K475, 1785), Rondo in D (K485, 1786), Rondo in F (K.494, 1786), 12 Variations on an Allegretto in B♭ (K500, 1786), Rondo in A minor (K511, 1787), Allegro and Andante (K533, 1788, often used with Rondo , K494, as finale to make ‘Sonata No.18’), Adagio in B minor (K540, 1788), 9 Variations on a Minuet by Duport (K573, 1789), Gigue in G (K574, 1789), 8 Variations on Schack's 𠆎in Weib ist das herrlichste Ding ’ (K613, 1791).ORGAN: Sonatas with orch: C major (K263, 1776), C major (K278, 1777), C major (K329, 1779) 14 Sonatas for org. and str., comp. between 1767 and 1780.MECHANICAL ORGAN: Adagio and Allegro in F minor (K594, 1790), Fantasia in F minor (K608, 1791), Andante in F (K616, 1791).SONGS (v. and pf.): Mozart wrote about 40 solo songs and Lieder , of which the best known are: Die Zufriedenheit (K349, 1780), Ah, spiegarti, O Dio (K178, 1772), Oiseaux, si tous les ans (K307, 1777), Komm, liebe Zither (with mandolin) (K351, 1780), An die Hoffnung (K390, 1782), Gesellenreise (K468, 1785), Der Zauberer (K472, 1785), Die betrogene Welt (K474, 1785), Das Veilchen (K476, 1785), Lied der Freiheit (K506, 1786), Die Alte (K517, 1787), Die Verschweigung (K518, 1787), Das Lied der Trennung (K519, 1787), Als Luise (K520, 1787), Abendempfindung (K523, 1787), An Chloe (K524, 1787), Des kleinen Freidrichs Geburtstag (K529, 1787), Das Traumbild (K530, 1787), Die kleine Spinnerin (K531, 1787), Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge (K596, 1791), Das Kinderspiel (K598, 1791), Eine kleine deutsche Kantate , 𠆍ie ihr des unermesslichen Weltalls ’ (K619, 1791).ADDITIONAL ACCOMPANIMENTS TO WORKS BY HANDEL: Acis and Galatea (K566, 1788), Messiah (K572, 1789), Alexander's Feast (K591, 1790), Ode for St Cecilia's Day (K592, 1791).

    Cite this article
    Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.


    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart [a] (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, [b] was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period.

    Born in Salzburg, in the Holy Roman Empire, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty, embarking on a grand tour. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court but grew restless and travelled in search of a better position.

    While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in Vienna, where he achieved fame but little financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his early death at the age of 35. The circumstances of his death are largely uncertain, and have thus been much mythologized.

    Despite his early death, his rapid pace of composition resulted in more than 600 works of virtually every genre of his time. Many of these compositions are acknowledged as pinnacles of the symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral repertoire. He is considered among the greatest classical composers of all time, [1] [2] and his influence on Western music is profound. Ludwig van Beethoven composed his early works in the shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote: "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years". [3]


    Vienna: the early years

    Fresh from his triumphs in Munich, where he had mixed freely with noblemen, Mozart now found himself placed, at table in the lodgings for the archbishop’s entourage, below the valets if above the cooks. Furthermore, the archbishop refused him permission to play at concerts (including one attended by the emperor at which Mozart could have earned half a year’s salary in an evening). He was resentful and insulted. Matters came to a head at an interview with Archbishop Colloredo, who, according to Mozart, used unecclesiastical language Mozart requested his discharge, which was eventually granted at a stormy meeting with the court steward on June 9, 1781.

    Mozart, who now went to live with his old friends the Webers (Aloysia was married to a court actor and painter), set about earning a living in Vienna. Although eager for a court appointment, he for the moment was concerned to take on some pupils, to write music for publication, and to play in concerts (which in Vienna were more often in noblemen’s houses than in public). He also embarked on an opera, Die Entführung aus dem Serail ( The Abduction from the Seraglio). (Joseph II currently required that German opera, rather than the traditional Italian, be given at the court theatre.) In the summer of 1781, rumours began to circulate, as far as Salzburg, that Mozart was contemplating marriage with the third of the Weber daughters, Constanze but he hotly denied them in a letter to his father: “I have never thought less of getting married…besides, I am not in love with her.” He moved lodgings to scotch the gossip. But by December he was asking for his father’s blessing on a marriage with Constanze, with whom he was now in love and to whom, probably through the machinations of her mother and her guardian, he was in some degree committed. Because Constanze later destroyed Leopold’s letters, for reasons that are easy to imagine, only one side of the correspondence exists Leopold’s reactions can, however, be readily inferred, and it would seem that this period marked a low point in the relationship between father and son.

    Musically, Mozart’s main preoccupation was with Die Entführung in the early part of 1782. The opera, after various delays, reached the Burgtheater stage on July 16. The story of the emperor’s saying “very many notes, my dear Mozart” may not be literally true, but the tale is symptomatic: the work does have far more notes than any other then in the German repertory, with fuller textures, more elaboration, and longer arias. Mozart’s letters to his father give insight into his approach to dramatic composition, explaining, for example, his use of accompanying figures and key relationships to embody meaning. He also had the original text substantially modified to strengthen its drama and allow better opportunities for music. Noteworthy features are the Turkish colouring, created by “exotic” turns of phrase and chromaticisms as well as janissary instruments the extended Act 2 finale, along the lines of those in opera buffa but lacking the dramatic propulsion of the Italian type the expressive and powerful arias for the heroine (coincidentally called Constanze) and what Mozart called concessions to Viennese taste in the comic music, such as the duet “Vivat Bacchus.”

    Die Entführung enjoyed immediate and continuing success it was quickly taken up by traveling and provincial companies—as La finta giardiniera had been, to a lesser degree—and carried Mozart’s reputation widely around the German-speaking countries. He complained, however, that he had not made enough money from the opera, and he began to devote more time and energy in other directions. Later in the year he worked on a set of three piano concertos and began a set of six string quartets, the latter inspired by Haydn’s revolutionary Opus 33. He also started work on a mass setting, in C Minor, which he had vowed to write on his marriage (a vow he renewed when his wife survived a difficult childbirth) but of which only the first two sections, “Kyrie” and “Gloria,” were completed. Among the influences on this music, besides the Austrian ecclesiastical tradition, was that of the Baroque music (Bach, Handel, and others) that Mozart had become acquainted with, probably for the first time, at the house of his patron Baron Gottfried van Swieten, a music collector and antiquarian. The Baroque influence is noticeable especially in the spare textures and austere lines of certain of the solo numbers, though others are squarely in the decorative, south German late Rococo manner (this interest in “old-fashioned” counterpoint can also be seen in some of Mozart’s piano music of the time and in his string arrangements of music from Bach’s The Well-Tempered Clavier). Mozart and his wife visited Salzburg in the summer and autumn of 1783, when the completed movements were performed, with (as always intended) Constanze singing the solo soprano parts, at St. Peter’s Abbey. On the way back to Vienna Mozart paused at Linz, where he hastily wrote the symphony known by that city’s name for a concert he gave there.


    Watch the video: Mozart Concerto No 3 Mysin Elisei Piano Елисей Мысин Young pianist composer Enisey reincarnation